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Chapter-12
Passage – 1
Although vocal cords are lacking in cetaceans, phonation is undoubtedly centered in the larynx.
            The toothed whales or odontocetes (sperm whale and porpoises)are much more vociferous than the whalebone whales, or mysticetes. In this country observers have recorded only occasional sounds from two species of mysticetes (the humpback and right whale). A Russian cetologist reports hearing sounds from at least five species of whalebone whales but gives no details of the circumstances or descriptions of the sounds themselves. Although comparison of the sound-producing apparatus in the two whale groups cannot yet be made, it is interesting to note that the auditory centers of the brain are much more highly developed in the odonotocetes than in the mysticetes, in fact, to a degree unsurpassed by any other mammalian group
  1. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
I.              What are odontocetes and mysticetes?
II.            In which part of the body do whales produce sounds?
III.           In which animals is the auditory center of the brain most developed?
a. I only    b. II only         c. I and II only                       d. II and III only         e. I, II, and III

  1. The author’s attitude toward the observations reported by the Russian cetologist mentioned in lines 4-6 is best described as one of
a. admiration       b. indignation           c. surprise      d. skepticism e. pessimism
3. It can be inferred from the passage that
a. animals with more highly developed auditory apparatuses tend to produce more sounds
b. animals without vocal cords tend to produce as much sound as those with vocal cords
c. highly intelligent animals tend to produce more sound than less intelligent species
d. the absence of vocal cords has hindered the adaptation of cetaceans
e. sound is an important means of communication among whales
Passage-2
Like her white friends Eleanor Roosevelt and Aubrey Williams, Mary Bethune believed in the fundamental commitment of the New Deal to assist the black American’s struggle and in the need for blacks to assume responsibilities to help win that struggle. Unlike those of her white liberal associates, however, Bethune’s idea had evolved out of a long experience as a “race leader”. Founder of a small black college in Florida, she had become widely known by 1935 as an organizer of black women’s groups ad as a civil and political rights activist. Deeply religious, certain of her own capabilities, the held a relatively uncluttered view of what she felt were the New Deal’s and her own people’s obligations to the cause of racial justice.
Unafraid to speak her mind to powerful whites, including the President, or to differing black factions she combined faith in the ultimate willingness of whites to discard their prejudice and bigotry with a strong sense of racial pride and commitment to Negro self-help. More than her liberal white friends, Bethune argued for a strong and direct black voice in initiating and shaping government policy. She pursued this in her conversations with President Roosevelt, in numerous memoranda to Aubrey Williams, and in her administrative work as head of the National Youth Administration’s Office of Negro Affairs.
With the assistance of Williams, she was successful in having blacks selected to NYA posts at her national state, and local levels. But she also wanted a black presence throughout the federal government. At the beginning of the war she joined other black leaders in demanding appointments to the Selective Service Board and to the Department of the Army; and she was instrumental in 1941 in securing Earl Dickerson’s membership on the Fair Employment Practices Committee. By 1944, she was still making appeals for black representation in “all public programs, federal, state, and local, and “in policy-making posts as well as rank and file jobs”.
Though recognizing the weakness in the Roosevelt administration’s response to Negro needs, Mary Bethune remained in essence a black partisan champion of the New Deal during the 1930s and 1940s. Her strong advocacy of administration policies and programs was predicated on a number of factors: her assessment of the low status of black Americans during the Depression; her faith in the willingness of some liberal whites to work for the inclusion of blacks in the government’s reform and recovery measures; her conviction that only massive federal aid could elevate the Negro economically; and her belief that the thirties and forties were producing a more self-aware and self-assured black population. Like a number of her white friends in government, Bethune assumed that the preservation of democracy and black people’s “full integration into the benefits and the responsibilities” of American life were inextricably tied together. She was convinced that, with the help of a friendly government, a militant, aggressive “New Negro” would emerge out of the devastation of depression and war, a “New Negro” who would “save America from itself”, who would lead America toward the full realization of its democratic ideas.’
1.            The author’s main purpose in this passage is to
a.    Criticize Mary Bethune for adhering too closely to New Deal policies
b.    Argue that Mary Bethune was too optimistic in her assessment of race relations
c.    Demonstrate Mary Bethune’s influence on black progress during the Roosevelt’s years
d.    Point out the weaknesses of the white liberal approach to black needs
e.    Summarize the attainments of blacks under the auspices of Roosevelt’s New Deal
2.            It can be inferred from the passage that Aubrey Williams was which of the following?
                                          i.    A man with influence in the National Youth Administration
                                        ii.    A white liberal
                                       iii.    A man of strong religious convictions
a.    I only
b.    II only
c.    I and II only
d.    II and III only
e.    I, II and III
3.            The author mentions Earl Dickerson primarily (line 17) primarily in order to
a.    Cite an instance of Bethune’s political impact
b.    Contrast his career with that of Bethune
c.    Introduce the subject of a subsequent paragraph
d.    Provide an example of Bethune’s “New Negro”
e.    Show that Dickerson was a leader of his fellow blacks
4.            It can be inferred from the passage that Bethune believed the “new Negro” would “save America from itself” (IInd last line of the paragraph) by
a.    Joining the army and helping America over-throw its Fascist enemies
b.    Helping America accomplish its egalitarian ideals
c.    Voting for administration anti-poverty programs
d.    Electing other blacks to government office
e.    Expressing a belief in racial pride
5.            The tone of the author’s discussion of Bethune is best described as
a.    Deprecatory
b.    Sentimental
c.    Ironic
d.    Objective
e.    Recriminatory
6.            The author uses all the following techniques in the passage EXCEPT
a.    Comparison and contrast
b.    Development of an extended analogy
c.    Direct quotation
d.    General statement and concrete examples
e.    Reiteration of central ideas
7.            Which of the following statements about the New Deal does the passage best support?
a.    It was strongly committed to justice for all races.
b.    It encouraged black participation in making policy decisions
c.    It was actively involved in military strategy
d.    It was primarily the province of Eleanor Roosevelt
e.    It shaped programs for economic aid and growth
Passage 3
“The emancipation of women” James Joyce told one of his friends, “has caused the greatest revolution in our time in the most important relationship there is - that between men and women.” Other modernists agreed; Virginia Wolf, claiming that in about 1910 “human character changed,” and , illustrating the new balance between the sexes, urged, “Read the ‘Agamemnon,’ and see whether…your sympathies are not entirely with Clytemnestra.” D.H. Lawrence wrote, “perhaps the deepest fight for 2000 years and more has been the fight for women’s independence.”
But if modernist writers considered women’s revolt against men’s domination one of their “greatest” and “deepest” themes, only recently – in perhaps the past 15 years – has literary criticism begun to catch up with it. Not that the images of sexual antagonism that abound in modern literature have gone unremarked; far from it. But what we are able to see in literary works depends on the perspectives we bring to them, and now that women – enough to make a difference – are reforming canons  and interpreting literature, the landscapes of literary history and the features of individual books have begun to change.
8.            According to the passage, women are changing literary criticism by
a.    Noting instances of hostility between men and women
b.    Seeing literature from fresh points of view
c.    Studying the works of early 20th century writers
d.    Reviewing books written by feminists
e.    Resisting masculine influence
9.            The author quotes James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and D.H. Laewrence primarily in order to show that
a.    These were feminist writers
b.    Although well meaning, they were ineffectual
c.    Before the 20th century, there was little interest in women’s literature
d.    Modern literature is dependent on the women’s movement
e.    The interest in feminist issues is not new
10.         The author’s attitude toward women’s reformation of literary canons can best be described as one of
a.    Ambivalence
b.    Antagonism
c.    Indifference
d.    Endorsement
e.    Skepticism
11.         Which of the following titles best describes the content of the passage?
a.    Modernist writers and the Search for Equality
b.    The meaning of Literary Works
c.    Toward a New Criticism
d.    Women in Literature, from 1910 On
e.    Transforming Literature
Passage-4
Ocean water plays an indispensable role in supporting life. The great ocean basins hold about 300million cubic miles of water. From this vast amount, about 80,000cubic miles of water are sucked into the atmosphere each year by evaporation and returned by precipitation and drainage to the ocean. More than 24000 cubic miles of rain descend annually upon the continents. This vast amount is required to replenish the lakes and streams, springs and water tables on which all flora and fauna are dependent. Thus, the hydrosphere permits organic existence.
The hydrosphere has strange characteristics because water has properties unlike those of any other liquid. One anomaly is that water upon freezing expands by about 9%, whereas most liquids contract on cooling. For this reason, ice floats on water bodies instead of sinking to the bottom. If the ice sank, the hydrosphere would soon be frozen solidly, except for a thin layer of surface melt water during the summer season. Thus, all aquatic life would be destroyed and the interchange of warm and cold currents, which moderates climate, would be notably absent.
Another outstanding characteristic of water is that water has a heat capacity which is the highest of all liquids and solids except ammonia. This characteristic enables the oceans to absorb and store vast quantities of heat, thereby often preventing climatic extremes. In addition, water dissolves more substances than any other liquid. It is this characteristic which helps make oceans a great storehouse for minerals which have been washed down from the continents. In several areas of the world these minerals are being commercially exploited. Solar evaporation of salt is widely practiced; potash is extracted from the Dead Sea, and magnesium
12.         The author’s main purpose in this passage is to
a.    Describe the properties and uses of water
b.    Illustrate the importance of conserving water
c.    Explain how water is used in commerce and industry
d.    Reveal the extent of the earth’s ocean masses
e.    Compare water with other liquids
13.         According to the passage, fish can survive in the oceans because
a.    They do not need oxygen
b.    Ice floats
c.    Evaporation and condensation create a water cycle
d.    3 are currents in the oceans
e.    water absorbs heat
14.         Which of the following characteristics of water does the author mention in the passage?
                                          i.    Water expands when it is frozen
                                        ii.    Water is a good solvent
                                       iii.    Water can absorb heat
a.    I Only
b.    II only
c.    I and II only
d.    II and III only
e.    I, II and III
15.         According to the passage, the hydrosphere is NOT
a.    Responsible for all forms of life
b.    Able to modify weather
c.    A source of natural resources
d.    In danger of freezing over
e.    The part of the earth covered by water
16.         The author’s tone in the passage can best be described as
a.    Dogmatic
b.    Dispassionate
c.    Speculative
d.    Biased
e.    Hortatory
17.         The author organizes the passage by
a.    Comparison and contrast
b.    Juxtaposition of true and untrue ideas
c.    General statements followed by examples
d.    Hypothesis and proof
e.    Definition of key terms
18.         Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?
a.    Water has the ability to erode the land
b.    Magnesium is widely used in metallurgical processes
c.    Now let us consider the great land masses
d.    Another remarkable property of ice is its strength
e.    Droughts and flooding are 2 types of disasters associated with water.
Passage 5
The opposite of adaptive divergence is an interesting and fairly common expression of evolution, Whereas related groups of organisms take on widely different characters in becoming adapted to unlike environments in the case of adaptive divergence, we find that unrelated groups of organisms exhibit adaptive convergence when they adopt similar modes of life or become suited for specials sorts of environments. For example, invertebrate marine animals living firmly attached to the sea bottom or to some foreign object tend to develop a subcylindrical or conical form. This is illustrated by coral individuals, by many sponges, and even by the diminutive tubes of bryozoans. Adaptive convergence in taking this coral like form is shown by some brachiopds and pelecypods tht grew in fixed position. More readily appreciated is the streamlined fitness of most fishes for moving swiftly through water; they have no neck, the contour of the body is smoothly curved so as to give minimum resistance, and the chief propelling organ is a powerful tail fin. The fact that some fossil reptiles (ichthyosaurs) and modern mammals (whales, dolphins) are wholly fish like in form is an expression of adaptive convergence, for these air-breathing reptiles and mammals, which are highly efficient swimmers, are not closely related to fishes. Unrelated or distantly related organisms that develop similarity of form are sometimes designated as homeomorphs (having the same form).
19.         The author mentions ichthyosaurs and dolphins (lines 11 and 12) as examples of
a.    Modern mammalian life forms that are aquatic
b.    Species of slightly greater mobility than brachiopods
c.    Air-breathing reptiles closely related to fish
d.    Organisms that have evolved into fishlike forms
e.    Invertebrate and vertebrate marine animals
20.         According to the passage, adaptive convergence and adaptive divergence are
a.    Manifestations of evolutionary patterns
b.    Hypotheses unsupported by biological phenomena
c.    Ways in which plants and animals adjust to a common environment
d.    Demonstrated by brachiopods and pelecypods
e.    Compensatory adjustments made in response to unlike environments
21.         It can be inferred that in the paragraph immediately preceding this passage the author discussed
a.    Marine intelligence
b.    Adaptive divergence
c.    Air-breathing reptiles
d.    Environmental impacts
e.    Organisms with similar forms
Passage 6
Nearly 2 thousands years have passed since a census decreed by Caesar Augustus became part of the greatest story ever told. Many things have changed in the intervening years. The hotel industry worries more about overbuilding than overcrowding, and if they had to meet an unexpected influx, few inns would have a manger to accommodate the weary guests. Now it is the census taker that does the traveling in the fond hope that a highly mobile population will stay put long enough to get a good sampling. Methods of gathering, recording, and evaluating information have presumably been improved a great deal. And where then it was the modest purpose of Rome to obtain a simple head count as an adequate basis for levying taxes, now batteries of complicated statistical series furnished by government agencies and private organizations are eagerly scanned and interpreted by sages and seers to get a clue to future events. The Bible does not tell us how the Roman census takers made out, and as regards our more immediate concern, the reliability of present day economic forecasting; there are considerable differences of opinion. They were aired at the celebration of the 125th anniversary of the American Statistical Association. There was the thought that business forecasting might well be on its way from an art to a science and some speakers talked about newfangled computers and high falutin mathematical systems in terms of excitement and endearment which we at least in our younger years when these things mattered, would have associated more readily with the description of a fair maiden. But others pointed to the deplorable record of highly esteemed forecasts and forecasters with a batting average below that of the Mets, and the president elect of the Association cautioned that “high powered statistical methods are usually in order where the facts are crude and inadequate, the exact contrary of what crude and inadequate statisticians assume”. We left his birthday party somewhere  between hope and despair and with the conviction, not really newly acquired, that proper statistical methods applied to ascertainable facts have their merits in economic forecasting as long as neither forecaster nor public is deluded into mistaking the delineation of probabilities and trends for a prediction of certainties of mathematical exactitude.
22.         The passage would be most likely to appear in
a.    A journal of biblical studies
b.    An introductory college textbook on statistics
c.    The annual report of the American Statistical Association
d.    A newspaper review of a recent professional festivity
e.    The current bulletin of the census bureau
23.         According to the passage, taxation in Roman times was based on
a.    Mobility
b.    Wealth
c.    Population
d.    Census takers
e.    Economic predictions
24.         The author refers to the Romans primarily in order to
a.    Prove the superiority of modern sampling methods to ancient ones
b.    Provide a historical framework for the passage
c.    Relate an unfamiliar concept to a familiar one
d.    Show that statistical forecasts have not significantly deteriorated
e.    Cite an authority to support the thesis of the passage
25.         The author refers to the Mets primarily in order to
a.    Show that sports do not depend on statistics
b.    Provide an example of an unreliable statistic
c.    Contrast verifiable and unverifiable methods of record keeping
d.    Indicate the changes in attitudes from Roman days to the present
e.    Illustrate the failure of statistical predictions
26.         On the basis of the passage, it can be inferred that the author would agree with which of the following statements?
a.    Computers have significantly improved the application of statistics in business.
b.    Statistics is not, at the present time, a science
c.    It is useless to try to predict the economy.
d.    Most mathematical systems are inexact
e.    Statisticians should devote themselves to the study of probability
27.         The author’s tone can best be described as
a.    Jocular                       b. scornful     c. pessimistic            d. objective    e. humanistic
Passage 7
Observe the dilemma of the fungus: it is a plant, but it possesses no chlorophyl. While all other plants put the sun’s energy to work for them combining the nutrients of ground and air into the body structure, the chlorophylless fungus must look else-where for an energy supply. It finds it in those other plants which, having received their energy free from the sun, relinquish it at some point in their cycle either to animals (like us humans) or to fungi. In this search for energy the fungus has become the earth’s major source of rot and decay. Wherever you see mold forming on a piece of bread, or a pile of leaves turning to compost, or a blown-down tree becoming pulp on the ground, you are watching a fungus eating. Without fungus action the earth would be piled high with the dead plant life of past centuries. In fact, certain plants which contain resins that are toxic to fungi will last indefinitely; specimens of the redwood, for instance, can still be found resting on the forest floor centuries after having been blown down.
28.         Which of the following words best describes the fungus as depicted in the passage?
a.    Unevolved     b. Sporadic    c. Enigmatic  d. Parasitic    e. Toxic
29.         The passage states all the following about fungi EXCEPT:         
a.    They are responsible for the decomposition of much plant life.
b.    They cannot live completely apart from other plants
c.    They are vastly different from other plants
d.    They are poisonous to resin-producing plants
e.    They cannot produce their own store of energy
30.         The author’s statement that “you are watching a fungus eating” (lines 7) is best described as
a.    Figurative      b. ironical       c. parenthetical         d. erroneous
e.   contradictory
34.       The author is primarily concerned with
            a.         warning people of the dangers of fungi
            b.         writing a humorous essay on fungi
            c.         relating how most plants use solar energy
            d.         describing the actions of fungi
            e.         explaining the long life of some redwoods
Passage 8
The establishment of the 3rd Reich influenced events in American history by starting a chain of events which culminated in war between Germany and the United States. The complete destruction of democracy, the persecution of Jews, the war on religion, the cruelty and bar-barism of the Nazis, and especially, the plans of Germany and her allies, Italy and Japan, for world conquest caused great indignation in this country and brought on fear of another world war. While speaking out against Hitler’s atrocities, the American people generally favored isolationist policies and neutrality. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936 prohibited trade with any belligerents or loans to them. In 1937 the President was empowered to declare an arms embargo in wars between nations at his discretion.
American opinion began to change somewhat after President Roosevelt’s “quarantine the aggressor” speech at Chicago (1937), in which he severely criticized Hitler’s policies. Germany’s seizure of Austria and the Munich Pact for the partition of Czechoslovakia (1938) also aroused the American people. The conquest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 was another rude awakening to the menace of the 3rd Reich. In August 1939 came the shock of the Nazi-Soviet Pact and in September the attack on Poland and the outbreak of European war. The United States attempted to maintain neutrality in spite of sympathy for the democracies arrayed against the 3rd Reich. The Neutrality Act of 1939 repealed the arms embargo and permitted “cash and carry” exports of arms to belligerent nations. A strong national defense program was begun. A draft act was passed (1940) to strengthen the military services. A Lend-Lease (1941) authorized the President to sell, exchange, or lend materials to any country deemed necessary by him for the defense of the United States. Help was given to Britain by exchanging certain overage destroyers for the right to establish American bases in British territory in the Western Hemisphere. In August 1941 President Roosevelt and Minister Churchill met and issued the Atlantic Charter, which proclaimed the kind of a world that should be established after the war. In December 1941 Japan launched an unprovoked attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor.
Immediately thereafter, Germany declared war on the United States.
35.       The author is primarily concerned with
a.   Evaluating various legislative efforts to strengthen national defense
b.    Summarizing the events that led up to America’s involvement in the war
c.    Criticizing the atrocities perpetrated by the 3rd Reich
d.    Explaining a basic distinction between American and German policy
e.    Describing the social and psychological effects of war
36.       During the years 1933-36, American foreign policy may best be described as being one of
a.    Overt belligerence
b.    Deliberate uninvolvement
c.    Moral indignation
d.    Veiled contempt
e.    Reluctant admiration
37.       According to the passage, the United States, while maintaining neutrality, showed its sympathy for the democracies by which of the following actions?
I.          It came to the defense of Poland
II.         It conscripted recruits for the armed forces.
III.        It supplied weapons to friendly countries
a. I only          b. III only        c. I and II only                       d. II and III only         e. I, II, and III
38.       According to the passage, all of the following events occurred in 1939 EXCEPT
a.         the invasion of Poland
b.         the invasion of Czechoslovakia
c.         the annexation of Austria
d.         passage of the Neutrality Act
e.         the beginning of the war in Europe
39.       With which of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?
a.         American neutrality during the 1930s was natural consequence of the course of world events.
b.         Every nation should be free to determine its own internal policy without interference.
c.         The United States, through its aggressive actions, invited an attack on its territory
d.         Americans were slow to realize the full danger posed by Nazi Germany
e.         President Roosevelt showed undue sympathy for Britain
40.       Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
a.         the author presents a thesis and then lists events that support that thesis in chronological order.
b.         the author presents a thesis ad then cites examples that support the thesis as well as evidence that tends to negate it
c.         the author summarizes a historical study and then discusses an aspect of the study in detail
d.         the author describes historical events and then gives a personal interpretation of them.
e.         the author cites noted authorities as a means of supporting his or her own opinion

Passage 9
Not a few of Jane Austen’s personal acquaintances might have echoed Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges, who noticed that “she was air and handsome, slight and elegant, but with cheeks a little too full,” while “never suspect[ing] she was an authoress.” For this novelist whose personal obscurity was more complete than that of any other famous writer was always quick to insist either on complete anonymity or on the propriety of her limited craft, her delight in delineating just “3 or 4 Families in a country Village.” With her self-deprecatory remarks about her inability to join “strong manly, spirited sketches, full of Variety and Glow” with her “little bit (2 inches wide) of Ivory,” Jane Austen perpetuated the belief among her friends that her art was just an accomplishment “by a lady,” if anything “rather too light and bright and sparkling.” In this respect she resembled one of her favorite contemporaries, Mary Brunton, who would rather have “glid[ed] through the world unknown” than been “suspected of literary airs – to shunned, as literary women are, by the more pretending of their own sex, and abhorred, as literary women are, by the more pretending of the other – my dear, I would sooner exhibit as a ropedancer.”
Yet, decorous though they might first seem, Austen’s self-effacing anonymity and her modest description of her miniaturist art also imply a criticism, even a rejection, of the world at large. For as Gaston Bachelard explains, the miniature “allows us to be world conscious at slight risk.” While the creators of satirically conceived diminutive landscapes seem to se everything as small because they are themselves so grand, Austen’s analogy for her art – her “little bit (2 inches wide) of Ivory” – suggests a fragility that reminds us of the risk and instability outside the fictional space. Besides seeing her art metaphorically, as her critics would too, in relation to female arts severely devalued until quite recently (for painting on ivory was traditionally a “ladylike” occupation), Austen attempted through self-imposed novelistic limitations to define a secure place, even as she seemed to admit the impossibility of actually inhabiting such a small space with any degree of comfort. And always, for Austen, it is women- because they are too vulnerable I the world at large – who must acquiesce in their own confinement, no matter how stifling it may be.
41. The passage focuses primarily on
    1. Jane Austen’s place in English literature
    2. The literary denigration of female novelists
    3. The implications of Austen’s attitude to her work
    4. Critical evaluations of the novels of Jane Austen
    5. Social rejection of professional women in the 18th and 19th centuries
42.         According to the passage, Austen concentrated on a limited range of subjects because
a.    She had a limited degree of experience of fiction
b.    Her imagination was incapable of creating other worlds
c.    Women in her time were prohibited from writing about significant topics
d.    She wanted to create a safe niche for the exercise of her talents
e.    She did not wish to be acknowledged as an author
43.         Which of the following best expresses the relationship of the first sentence to the rest of the passage?
a.    Specific instance followed by generalizations
b.    Assertion followed by analysis
c.    Objective statement followed by personal opinion
d.    Quotation from an authority followed by conflicting views
e.    Challenge followed by debate
Passage 10
The atmosphere is a mixture of several gases. There are about ten chemical elements which remain permanently in gaseous form in the atmosphere under all natural conditions. Of these permanent gases, oxygen makes up about 21% and nitrogen about 78%. Several other gases, such as argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, krypton, and xenon, comprise the remaining 1% of the volume of dry air. The amount of water vapor, and its variation in amount and distribution, are of extraordinary importance in weather changes. Atmospheric gases hold in suspension great quantities of dust, pollen, smoke, and other impurities which are always present in considerable, but variable amounts.
The atmosphere has no definite upper limits but gradually thins until it becomes imperceptible. Until recently it was assumed that the air above the first few miles gradually grew thinner and colder at a constant rate. It was also assumed that upper air had little influence on weather changes. Recent studies of the upper atmosphere, currently being conducted by earth satellites and missile probing, have shown these assumptions to be incorrect. The atmosphere has 3 well-defined strata.
The layer of the air next to the earth, which extends upward for about 10 miles, is known as the troposphere. On the whole, it makes up about 75% of all the weight of the atmosphere. It is the warmest part of the atmosphere because most of the solar radiation is absorbed by the earth’s surface, which warms the air immediately surrounding it. A steady decrease of temperature with increasing elevation is a most striking characteristic. The upper layers are colder because of their greater distance from the earth’s surface and rapid radiation of heat into space. The temperatures within the troposphere oecrease about 3.5 degrees per 1000-foot increase in altitude. Within the troposphere, winds and air currents distribute heat and moisture.
Strong winds, called jet streams, are located at the upper levels of the troposphere. These jet streams are both complex and widespread in occurrence. They normally show a wave-shaped pattern and move from west to east at velocities of 150mph, but velocities as high as 400 mph have been noted. The influence of changing locations and strengths of jet streams upon weather conditions and patterns are no doubt considerable. Current intensive research may eventually reveal their true significance.
Above the troposphere to a height of about 50 miles is a zone called the stratosphere. The stratosphere is sepa-rated from the troposphere by a zone of uniform temperatures called the tropopuse. Within the lower portions of the stratosphere is a layer of ozone gases which filters out most of the ultraviolet rays from the sun. The ozone layer varies with air pressure. If this zone were not there, the full blast of the sun’s ultraviolet light would bum our skins, blind our eyes, and eventually result in our destruction. Within the stratosphere, the temperature and atmospheric composition are relatively uniform. The layer upward of about 50 miles is the most fascinating but the least known of these 3 strata. It is called the ionosphere because it consists, of electrically charged particles called ions, thrown from the sun. the northern lights (aurora borealis) originate within this highly charged portion of the atmosphere. Its effect upon weather conditions, if any, is as yet unknown.
44.         Which of the following titles best summarizes the content of the passage?
a.    New methods for calculating the Composition of the Atmosphere
b.    New evidence concerning the Stratification of the Atmosphere
c.    The Atmosphere: Its Nature and Importance to Our Weather
d.    The Underlying Causes of Atmospheric Turbulence
e.    Stratosphere, Troposphere, Ionosphere: 3 Similar Zones
45.         The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following question?
                                          i.    How do the troposphere and the stratosphere differ?
                                        ii.    How does the ionosphere affect the weather?
                                       iii.    How do earth satellites study the atmosphere?
a. I only          b. III only        c. I and II only                       d. I and III only         
e. I, II and III only
46.       According to the passage, life as we know it exists on the earth because the atmosphere
            a.         contains a layer of ozone gases
            b.         contains electrically charged paricles
            c.         is warmest at the bottom    
            d.         carries the ultraviolet rays of the sun
            e.         provides the changes in weather
47.       It can be inferred from the passage that a jet plane will usually have its best average rate of speed on its run from
            a.         New York to San Francisco
            b.         Los Angeles to New York
            c.         Boston to Miami
            d.         Bermuda to New York
            e.         London to Washington, D.C.
48.       It can be inferred from the Passage that at the top of Jungfrau which is 12000 feet above the town of Interlaken in Switzerland, the temperature is usually
            a.         below freezing
            b.         about 42 degrees colder than on the ground
            c.         wanner than in Interlaken
            d.         affected by the ionosphere
            e.         about 75 degrees colder than in Interlaken
49.       The passage states that the troposphere is the warmest part of the atmosphere because it
            a.         is closest to the sun
            b.         contains electrically charged parties
            c.         radiates heat into space
            d.         has winds and air current that distribute the heat
            e.         is warmed by the earth’s heat
50.       According to the passage, the atmosphere consists of all of the following EXCEPT
            a.         21% oxygen
            b.         a definite amount of water vapor
            c.         ten permanent elements
            d.         less than 1% percent of xenon
            e.         considerable waste products



PART 2





1
C
21
A
41
C
2
D
22
D
42
D
3
A
23
A
43
B
4
C
24
B
44
C
5
C
25
D
45
A
6
A
26
C
46
A
7
B
27
B
47
B
8
D
28
E
48
B
9
B
29
B
49
E
10
E
30
A
50
B
11
B
31
D



12
E
32
D



13
D
33
A



14
C
34
D



15
A
35
B



16
B
36
B



17
E
37
D



18
D
38
C



19
B
39
D



20
C
40
A





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