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Chapter 12
Passage 1
One phase of the business cycle is the expansion phase. This phase is a twofold one, including recovery and prosperity. During the recovery period there is ever-growing expansion of existing facilities, and new facilities for production are created. More businesses are created and older ones expanded. Improvements of various kinds are made there is an ever-increasing optimism about the future of economic growth. Much capital is invested in machinery or “heavy” industry. More labor is employed. More raw materials are required. As one part of the economy develops, other parts are effected. For example, a great expansion in automobiles results in an expansion of the steel, glass, and rubber industries. Roads are required; thus the cement and machinery industries are stimulated. Demand for labor and materials results in greater prosperity for workers and suppliers of raw materials, including farmers. This increases purchasing power ad the volume of goods bought and sold. Thus prosperity is diffused among the various segments of the population. This prosperity period may continue to rise and rise without an apparent end. However, a time comes when this phase reaches a peak and stops spiraling upwards. This is the end of the expansion phase.
1.            Which of the following statements is the best example of the optimism mentioned in line 4 of the passage as being part of the expansion phase?
a.    Public funds are designated for the construction of new highways designed to stimulate tourism.
b.    Industrial firms allocate monies for the purchase of machine tools.
c.    The prices of agricultural commodities are increased at the producer level.
d.    Full employment is achieved at all levels of the economy.
e.    As technology advances, innovative businesses replace antiquated firms
2.            It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that
a.    When consumers lose their confidence in the market, a recession follows
b.    Cyclical ends to business expansion are normal
c.    Luxury goods such as jewelry are unaffected by industrial expansion
d.    With sound economic policies, prosperity can become a fixed pattern
e.    The creation of new products is essential for prosperity
3.            Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?
a.    Union demands may also have an effect on business cycles.
b.    Some industries are, by their very nature, cyclical, having regular phases of expansion and recession.
c.    Inflation is a factor that must be taken into consideration in any discussion of the expansion phase.
d.    The fanner’s role during the expansion phase is of vital importance.
e.    The other phase of the business cycle is called the recession phase
Passage 2
The history of mammals dates back at least to Triassic time. Development was retarded, how-ever, until the sudden acceleration of evolutional change that occurred in the oldest Paleocene. This led in Eocene time to increase in average size, larger mental capacity, and special adaptations for different modes of life. In the Oligocene Epoch, there was further improvement, with appearance of some new lines and extinction of others. Miocene and Pliocene time was marked by culmination of several groups and continued approach toward modern characters. The peak of (his career of mammals in variety and average large size was attained in the Miocene. The adaptation of mammals to almost all possible modes of life parallels that of the reptiles in Mesozoic time, and except for greater intelligence, the mammals do not seem to have done much better than corresponding reptilian forms. The bat is doubtless a better flying animal than the pterosaur, but the dolphin and and whale are hardly more fish like than the ichthyosaur. Many swift-running mammals of the plains, like the horse and the antelope, must excel any of the dinosaurs. The tyrannosaur was a more ponderous and powerful carnivore than any flesh eating mammal, but the lion or tiger is probably a more efficient and dangerous beast of prey because of a superior brain. The significant point to observe is that different branches of the mammals gradually fitted themselves for all sorts of life, grazing on the plains and able to run swiftly (horse, deer), living in rivers and swamps (hippopotamus, beaver), dwelling in trees (sloth, monkey), digging underground (mole, rodent), feeding on flesh in the forest (tiger) and on the plain (wolf), swimming in the sea (dolphin, whale, seal), and flying in the air (bat). Man is able by mechanical means to conquer the physical world and to adapt himself to almost any set of conditions. This adaptation produces gradual changes of from and structure. It is biologically characteristic of the youthful, plastic stage of a group. Early in its career, an animal assemblage seems to possess capacity for change, which, as the unit becomes old and fixed, disappear the generalized types of organisms retain longest the ability to make adjustments when required, and it is from them that new, fecund stocks take origin-certainly not from any specialized end products. So, in the mammals, we witness the birth, plastic spread in many directions, increasing specialization, and in some branches, the extinction, which we have learned from observation of the geologic record of life is a characteristic of the evolution of life.
4.            Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage?
a.    From Dinosaur to Man
b.    Adaptation and Extinction
c.    The Superiority of Mammals
d.    The Geologic Life Span
e.    Man, Conqueror of the Physical World
5.            It can be inferred from the passage that the chronological order of the geologic periods is
a.    Paleocene, Miocene, Triassic, Mesozoic
b.    Paleocene, Triassic, Mesozoic, Miocene
c.    Miocene, Paleocene, Triassic, Mesozoic
d.    Mesozoic, Oligocene, Paleocene, Miocene
e.    Mesozoic, Paleocene, Eocene, Miocene
6.            It can be inferred from the passage that the pterosaur
a.    Resembled the bat
b.    Was a Mesozoic mammal
c.    Was a flying reptile
d.    Lived in the sea
e.    Evolved during the Miocene period
7.            According to the passage, the greatest number of forms of mammalian life is found in the
a.    Triassic period
b.    Eocene period
c.    Oligocene epoch
d.    Pliocene period
e.    Miocene period
8.            Which of the following statements, if true, would weaken the statement made by the author in lines 7-9?
a.    Trynnosaur has been found to have a larger brain than was previously thought.
b.    Mammals will become extinct within the next thousand years.
c.    Forms of flying ichthyosaurs have recently been discovered.
d.    The tiger has now been proved to be more powerful than the carnivorous reptiles.
e.    Computers have been developed that can double human mental capacity.
9.            It can be inferred from the passage that the evidence the author uses in discussing the life of past time periods
a.    Was developed by Charles Darwin
b.    Was uncovered by the author
c.    Has been negated by more recent evidence
d.    Was never definitely established
e.    Is based on fossil remains
10.         With which of the following proverbial expressions about human existence would the author be most likely to agree?
a.    It’s a cruel world.
b.    All the world’s a stage
c.    The more things change, the more they remain the same.
d.    Footprints in the sands of time
e.    A short life, but a merry one
Passage 3
For me, scientific knowledge is divided into mathematical science, natural sciences or sciences dealing with the natural world (physical and biological sciences), and sciences dealing with mankind (psychology, sociology, all the sciences of cultural achievements, every kind of historical knowledge). Apart from these sciences is philosophy, about which we will talk shortly. In the first place, all this is pure or theoretical knowledge, sought only for the purpose of understanding, in order to fulfill the need to understand that is intrinsic and consubstantial to man. What distinguishes man from animal is that he knows and needs to know. If man did not know that the world existed, and that the world was of a certain kind, that he was in the world and that he himself was of a certain kind, he wouldn’t be man. The technical aspects of applications of knowledge are equally necessary for man and are of the greatest importance, because they also contribute to defining him as man and permit him to pursue a life increasingly more truly human.
But even while enjoying the results of technical progress, he must defend the primacy ad autonomy of pure knowledge. Knowledge sought directly for its practical applications will have immediate and foreseeable success, but not the kind of important result whose revolutionary scope is in large part unforeseen, except by the imagination of the Utopians. Let me recall a well known example. If the Greek mathematicians had not applied themselves to the investigation of conic sections, zealously and without the least suspicion that it might someday be useful, it would not have been possible centuries later to navigate far from shore. The first men to study the nature of electricity could not imagine that their experiments, carried on because of mere intellectual curiosity, would eventually lead to modern electrical technology, without which we can scarcely conceive of contemporary life. Pure knowledge is valuable for its own sake, because the human spirit cannot resign itself to ignorance. But, in addition, it is the foundation for practical results that would not have been reached if this knowledge had not been sought disinterestedly.
11.         the author points out that the Greeks who studied conic sections
a.    invented modern mathematical applications
b.    were interested in navigation
c.    were unaware of the value of their studies
d.    worked with electricity
e.    were forced to resign themselves to failure
12.         The title below that best expresses the ideas of this passage is
a.    technical progress
b.    A Little Learning Is a Dangerous Thing
c.    Man’s Distinguishing Characteristics
d.    Learning for Its Own Sake
e.    The Difference Between Science and Philosophy
13.         It can be inferred from the passage that to the author man’s need to know is chiefly important in that it
a.    Allow the human race to progress technically
b.    Encompasses both the physical and social sciences
c.    Demonstrates human vulnerability
d.    Defines man’s essential humanity
e.    Has increased as our knowledge of the world has grown
Passage 4
When you first saw a piece of African art, it impressed you as a unit; you did not see it as a collection of shapes or forms. This, of course, means that the shapes and volumes within the sculpture itself were coordinated so successfully that the viewer was affected emotionally. It is entirely valid to ask how, from a purely artistic point of view, this unity was achieved. And we must also inquire whether there is a recurrent pattern or rules or a plastic language and vocabulary which is responsible for the powerful communication of emotion which the best African sculpture achieves. If there is such a pattern or rules, are these rules applied consciously or instinctively to obtain so many works of such high artistic quality? It is obvious from the study of art history that an intense and unified emotional experience, such as the Christian credo of the Byzatine or 12th or 13th century Europe, when expressed in art forms, gave great unity, coherence, and power to art. But such an integrated feeling was only the inspirational element for the artist, only the starting point of the creative act. The expression of this eotion and its realization in the work could be done only with disciplined and thorough knowledge of the craft. And the African sculptor was a highly trained workman. He started his apprenticeship with a master when a child, ad he learned the tribal styles and the use of tools and the nature of woods so thoroughly that his carving became what Boas calls “motor action”. He carved automatically and instinctively. The African carver followed his rules without thinking of them; indeed, they never seem to have been formulated in words. But such rules existed, for accident ad coincidence cannot explain the common plastic language of African sculpture. There is too great a consistency from one work to another. Yet, although the African, with amazing insight into art, used these rules, I am certain that he was not conscious of them. This is the great mystery of such a traditional art: talent, or the ability certain people have, without conscious effort, to follow the rules which later the analyst can discover only from the work of art which has already been created.
14.         The author is primarily concerned with
a.    Discussing how African sculptors achieved their effects
b.    Listing the rules followed in African art
c.    Relating African art to the art of 12th or 13th century Europe
d.    Integrating emotion and realization
e.    Expressing the beauty of African art
15.         According to the passage, one of the outstanding features of African sculpture is
a.    Its esoteric subject matter
b.    The emotional content of the work
c.    The education or training of the artists
d.    Its “foreignness” when compared to Western art
e.    Its high degree of conscious control
16.         The author uses the phrase “plastic language” in lines 4-5 and 16-17 to refer to African art’s
a.    Mass reproduction
b.    Unrealistic qualities
c.    Modernistic orientation
d.    Sculptural symbols
e.    Repetitive nature
17.         The information in the passage suggests that an African carver might best be compared to a
a.    Chef following a recipe
b.    Fluent speaker of English who is just beginning to study French
c.    Batter who hits a homerun in his or her first baseball game
d.    Concert pianist performing a well-rehearsed concerto
e.    Writer who is grammatically expert but stylistically uncreative
18.         Which of the following does the passage imply about art?
a.    Content is more important than form
b.    There is no room for untrained artists
c.    From  is more important then content
d.    Western artists are too concerned with technique
e.    Great art must be consistent
19.         The author’s presentation of the material includes all of the following EXCEPT
a.    Comparison
b.    Cause and effect
c.    Rhetorical questioning
d.    Direct quotation
e.    Concrete example
20.         Which of the following titles best expresses the content of the passage?
a.    The apprenticeship of the African Sculptor
b.    The History of African Sculpture
c.    How African Art Achieves Unity
d.    Analyzing African Art
e.    The Unconscious Rules of African Art
Passage 5
Both plants and animals of many sorts show remarkable changes in form, structure, growth habits, and even mode of reproduction in becoming adapted to different climatic environment, types of food supply, or mode of living. This divergence in response to evolution is commonly expressed by altering the form and function of some part or parts of the organism, the original identity of which is clearly discernible. For example, the creeping foot of the snail is seen in related marine pteropods to be modified into a flapping organ useful for swimming, and is changed into prehensile arms that bear suctorial disks in the squids and other cephalopods. The limbs of various mammals are modified according to several different modes of life for swift running (cursorial) as in the horse and antelope, for swinging in trees (arboreal) as in the monkeys, for digging (fossorial) as in the moles and gophers, for flying (Volant) as in the bats, for swimming (aquatic) as in the seals, whales and dolphins, and for other adaptations. The structures or organs that show main change in connection with this adaptive divergence are commonly identified readily as homologous, in spite of great alterations. Thus, the finger and wrist bones of a bat and whale, for instance, have virtually nothing in common except that they are definitely equivalent elements of the mammalian limb.
21.         Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage, based on its content?
a.    Adaptive Divergence
b.    Evolution
c.    Unusual structures
d.    Changes in organs
e.    Our changing bodies
22.         The author provides information that would answer which of the following questions?
I.              What factors cause change in organisms?
II.            What is the theory of evolution?
III.           How are horses’ legs related to seals’ flippers?
a.    I only
b.    II only
c.    I and II only
d.    I and III only
e.    I, II and III
23.         Which of the following word could best he substituted for “homologous” (line 11+12) without substantially changing the author’s meaning?
a.    Altered
b.    Mammalian
c.    Corresponding
d.    Divergent
e.    Tactile
24.         The author’s style can best be described as
a.    Humorous
b.    Objective
c.    Patronizing
d.    Esoteric
e.    Archaic
Passage 6
Plato-who may have understood better what forms the mind of man than do some of our cotemporaries who want their children exposed only to “real” people and everyday events-knew what intellectual experiences make for true humanity. He suggested that the future citizens of his ideal republic begin their literary education with the telling of myths, rather than with mere facts or so-called rational teachings. Even Aristotle, master of pure reason, said: “The friend of wisdom is also friend of myth”.
Modern thinkers who have studied myths and fairy tales from a philosophical or psychological viewpoint arrive at the same conclusion, regardless of their original persuasion. Mircea Eliade, for one, describes these stories as “models for human behavior [that], by that very fact, give meaning and value to life.” Drawing on anthropological parallels, he and others suggest that myths and fairy tales were derived form, or give symbolic expression to, initiation rites or rites of passage-such as metaphoric death of an old, inadequate self in order to be reborn on a higher plane of existence. He feels that this is why these tales meet a strongly felt need and are carriers of such deep meaning.
Other investigators with a depth psychological orientation emphasize the similarities between the fantastic events in myths and fairy tales and those in adult dreams and daydreams – the fulfillment of wishes, the winning out over all competitors, the destruction of enemies – and conclude that one attraction of this literature is its expression of that which is normally prevented from coming to awareness.
There are, of course, very significant differences between fairy tales and dreams. For example, in dreams more often than not the wish fulfillment is disguised, while in fairy tales much of it is openly expressed. To a considerable degree, dreams are the result of inner pressures which have found no relief, of problem which beset a person to which he knows no solution and to which the dream finds none. The fairy tale does the opposite: it projects the relief of all pressures and not only offers ways to solve problems but promises that a “happy” solution will he found.
We cannot control what goes on in our dreams.
Although our inner censorship influences what we may dream, such control occurs on an unconscious level. The fairy tale, on the other hand, is very much the result of common conscious, and unconscious opntent haying been shaped by the conscious mind, not of one particular person, but the consensus of many in regard to what they view as universal human problems, and what they accept as desirable solutions. If all these elements were not present in a fairy tale, it would not be retold by generation after generation. Only if a fairy tale met the conscious and unconscious requirements of many people was it repeatedly retold, and listened to with great interest. No dream of a person could arouse such persistent interest unless it was worked into a myth, as was the story of the pharaoh’s dream as interpreted by Joseph in the Bible.
25.         It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s interest in fairy tales centers chiefly on their
a.    Literary qualities
b.    Historical background
c.    Factual accuracy
d.    Psychological relevance
e.    Ethical weakness
26.         According to the passage, fairy tales fifer form dreams in which of the following characteristics?
I.              The communal nature of their creation
II.            Their convention of a happy ending
III.           Their enduring general appeal
a.    I only
b.    II only
c.    I and II only
d.    II and III only
e.    I, II and III
27.         It can be inferred from the passage that Mircea Eliade is most likely
a.    A writer of children’s literature
b.    A student of physical anthropology
c.    A 20th century philosopher
d.    An advocate of practical education
e.    A contemporary of Plato
28.         Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude toward fairy tales?
a.    Reluctant fascination
b.    Wary skepticism
c.    Scornful disapprobation
d.    Indulgent tolerance
e.    Open approval
29.         The author quotes Plato and Aristotle primarily in order to
a.    Define the nature of myth
b.    Contrast their opposing points of view
c.    Support the point that myths are valuable
d.    Prove that myths originated in ancient times
e.    Give an example of depth psychology
30.         The author mentions all of the following as reason for reading fairy tales EXCEPT
a.    Emotional calharsit
b.    Behavioral paradigm
c.    Uniqueness of experience
d.    Sublimation of aggression
e.    Symbolic satisfaction
Passage 7
The stability that had marked the Iroquois Confederacy’s generally pro-British position was shattered with the overthrow of James II in 1688, the colonial uprising that followed in Massachusetts, New York, and Mary-land, and the commence Trent of King William’s War against Louis XIV of France. The increasing French threat to English hegemony in the interior of North America was signalized by French-led or French-inspired attacks on the Iroquois and on outlying colonial settlements in New York and New England. The high point of the Iroquois response was the spectacular raid of August 5, 1689, in which the Iroquois virtually wiped out the French village of Lachine, just outside Montreal, A counterraid by the French on the English village of Schenectady in March, 1690, instilled an appropriate measure of fear among the English and their Iroquois allies.
The Iroquois position at the end of the war, which was formalized by treaties made during the summer of 1701 with the British and the French, and which was maintained throughout most of the 18th century, was one of “aggressive neutrality” between the 2 competing European powers. Under the new system the Iroquois initiated a peace policy toward the “far Indians,” tightened their control over the nearby tribes, and induced both English and French to support their neutrality toward the European powers by appropriate gifts and concessions.
By holding the balance of power in the sparsely settled borderlands between English and French settlements, and by their willingness to use their power against one or the other nation if not appropriately treated, the Iroquois played the game of European power politics with effectiveness. The system broke down, however, after the French became convinced that the Iroquois were compromising the system in favor of the English and launched a full-scale attempt to establish French physical and juridical presence in the Ohio Valley, the heart of the borderlands long claimed by the Iroquois. As a consequence of the ensuring Great War for Empire, in which Iroquois neutrality was dissolved and European influence moved closer, the play-off system lost its efficacy and system of direct bargaining supplanted it.
31.         The author’s primary purpose in this passage is to
a.    Denounce the imperialistic policies of the French
b.    Disprove the charges of barbarism made against the Iroquois
c.    Expose the French government’s exploitation of the Iroquois balance of power
d.    Describe and assess the effect of European military power o Iroquois policy
e.    Show the inability of the Iroquois to engage in European style diplomacy
32.         It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s attitude toward the Iroquois leadership can best be described as one of
a.    Suspicion of their motives
b.    Respect for their competence
c.    Indifference to their fate
d.    Dislike of their savagery
e.    Pride in their heritage
33.       With which of the following statements would the author be LEAST            likely to agree?
            a.         the Iroquois were able, to respond effectively to French acts of aggression.
            b.         James II’s removal from the throne caused dissension to break out among the colonies.
            c.         The French begrudged the British their alleged high standing among the Iroquois
            d.         Iroquois negotiations involved playing one side against the other.
            e.         The Iroquois ceased to hold the balance of power early in the 18th century.
34.       The author attributes such success as the Iroquois policy of aggressive neutrality had to
            a.         The readiness of the Iroquois to fight either side
            b.         their ties of loyalty to the British
            c.         French physical presence in the borderlands
            d.         The confusion of the European forces
e.         European reliance on formal treaties
Passage 8
Of the 197 million square miles making up the surface of the globe, 71% is covered by the interconnecting bodies of marine water; the Pacific Ocean alone covers half the Earth and averages nearly 14,000 feet in depth. The continents- Eurasia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica – are the portions of the continental masses rising above sea level. The sub – merged borders of the continental masses are the continental shelves, beyond which lie the deep – sea basins.
The oceans attain their greatest depths not in their central parts, but in certain elongated furrows, or long narrow troughs, called deeps. These profound troughs have a peripheral arrangement, notably around the borders of the Pacific and Indian oceans. The position of the deeps near the continental masses suggests that the deeps, like the highest mountains, are of recent origin, since otherwise they would have been filled with waste from the lands. This suggestion is strengthened by the fact that the deeps are – frequently the sites of world – shaking earthquakes. For example, the “tidal wave” that in April 1946 caused widespread destruction along Pacific coasts resulted from a strong earthquake on the floor of the Aleutian Deep.
The topography of the ocean floors is none too well known, since in great areas the available soundings are hundreds or even thousands of miles apart. However, the floor of the Atlantic is becoming fairly well known as a result of special surveys since 1920. A broad, well-defined ridge – the Mid-Atlantic ridge – runs north and south between Africa and the 2 Americas, and numerous other major irregularities diversify the Atlantic floor. Closely spaced soundings show that many parts of the oceanic floors are as rugged as mountainous regions of the continents. Use of the recently perfected method of echo sounding is rapidly enlarging our knowledge of submarine topography. During World War II great Strides were made in mapping submarine surfaces, particularly in many parts of the vast Pacific basin.
The continents stand on the average 2870 feet – slightly more than half a mile – above sea level. North America averages 2300 ft.; Europe averages only 1150ft.; and Asia, the highest of the larger continental sub-divisions, averages 3200ft. The highest point on the globe, Mount Everest in the Himalayas, is 29000ft. above the sea; and as the greatest known depth in the sea is over 35000 ft. the maximum relief (that is, the difference in altitude between the lowest and highest points) exceeds 64000 ft., or exceeds 12 miles. The continental masses and the deep-sea basins are relief features of the first order; the deeps, ridges, and volcanic cones that diversify the sea floor, as well as the plains, plateaus, and mountains of the continents, are relief features of the second order. The lands are unendingly subject to a complex of activities summarized in the term erosion, which first sculptures them in great detail and then tends to reduce them ultimately to sea level. The modeling of the landscape by weather, running water, and other agents is apparent to the keenly observant eye and causes thinking people to speculate on what must be the final result of the ceaseless wearing down of the lands. Long before there was a science of geology, Shakespeare wrote “the revolution of the times makes mountains level.”
35.       Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage?
                                                                                          i.    Features of the Earth’s surfaces
                                                                                        ii.    Marine Topography
                                                                                       iii.    The Causes of Earthquakes
                                                                                       iv.    Primary Geologic Considerations
                                                                                        v.    How to Prevent Erosion
36.       It can be inferred from the passage that the largest ocean is the
                                                 i.         Atlantic
ii.            Pacific
iii.           Indian
iv.           Antarctic
v.            Arctic
37.       The “revolution of the times” as used in the final sentence means
                                                                                          i.    The passage of years
                                                                                        ii.    The current rebellion
                                                                                       iii.    The science of geology
                                                                                       iv.    The action of the ocean floor
                                                                                        v.    The overthrow of natural forces
38.         According to the passage, the peripheral furrows or deeps are found
a.    Only in the Pacific and Indian oceans
b.    Near earthquakes
c.    Near the shore
d.    In the center of the ocean
e.    To be 14000 ft. in depth in the Pacific
39.         The passage contains information that world answer which of the following questions?
a.    What is the highest point on North America?
b.    Which continental subdivision is, on the average, 1150 ft. above sea level?
c.    How deep is the deepest part of the ocean?
                                          i.    I only 
                                        ii.    II only
                                       iii.    III only
                                       iv.    I and II only
                                        v.    II and III only
40.         From this passage, it can be inferred that earthquakes
a.    Occur only in the peripheral furrows
b.    Occur more frequently in newly formed land or sea formations
c.    Are a prime cause of soil erosion
d.    Will ultimately “make mountains level”
e.    Are caused by the weight of the water
Passage 9
An essay which appeals chiefly to the intellect is Francis Bacon’s “Of Studies”. His careful tripartite division of studies expressed succinctly in aphoristic pose demands the complete attention of the mind of the reader. He considers studies as they should be; for pleasure, for self-improvement, for business. He considers the evils of excess study: laziness, affectation, and preciosity. Bacon divides books into 3 categories: those to be read in part, those to be read cursorily, and those to be read with care. Studies should include reading, which gives depth; speaking, which adds readiness of thought; and writing, which trains in preciseness. Somewhat mistakenly, the author ascribes certain virtues to individual fields of study: wisdom to history, wit to poetry, subtlety to mathematics, and depth to natural philosophy. Bacon’s four-hundred-word essay, studded with Latin phrases and highly compressed in thought, has intellectual appeal indeed.
41.         Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage, based on its content?
a.    Francis Bacon and the Appeal of the Essay
b.    “Of Studies”: A Tripartite Division
c.    An Intellectual Exercise: Francis Bacon’s Of Studies”
d.    The Categorization of Books According to Bacon
e.    A Method for Reading Books
42.         Which of the following words could best be substituted for “aphoristic” (lines 1-2) without substantially changing the author’s meaning?
a.    Abstruse
b.    Pithy
c.    Tripartite
d.    Proverbial
e.    Realistic
43.         The passage suggests that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?
a.    “Of Studies” belongs in the category of works that demand to be read with care.
b.    Scholars’ personalities are shaped by the academic discipline in which they are engaged.
c.    It is an affectation to use foreign words in one’s writing.
d.    An author can be more persuasive in a long work than in a shorter one.
e.    Studies should be undertaken without thought of personal gain.
Passage 10
Rocks which have solidified directly from molten materials are called igneous rocks. Igneous rocks are commonly referred to as primary rocks because they are the original source of material found in sedimentaries and metamorphics. Igneous rocks compose the greater part of the earth’s crust, but they are generally covered at the surface by a relatively thin layer of sedimentary or metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks are distinguished by the following characteristics: (1) they contain no foddils ; (2) they have no regular arrangement of layers; (3) they are nearly always made up of crystals.
Sedimentary rocks are composed largely of minute fragments derived form the disintegration of existing rocks and in some instances from the remains of animals. As sediments are transported, individual fragments are assorted according to size. Distinct layers of such sediments as gravels, sand and clay build up as they are deposited by water and occasionally wind. These sediments vary in size with the material and the power of the eroding agent. Sedimentary materials are laid down in layers called strata.
When sediments harden into sedimentary rocks, the names applied to them chang to indicate the chang in physical state. Thus, small stone and gravel cemented together are known as conglomerates: cemented send becomes sandstone; and hardened clay become shale. In addition to these, other sedimentary rocks such as limestone frequently result form the deposition of dissolved material. The ingredient parts are normally precipitated by organic substances, such as shells of clams or hard skeletons of other marine life.
Both igneous and sedimentary rocks may be changed by pressure, heat, and solution or cementing action. When individual grains from existing rocks tend to deform and interlock, they are called metamorphic rocks. For example, granite, an igneous rock, may be metamorphosed into gneiss or schist. Limestone, a sedimentary rock, when subjected to heat and pressure may become marble a metamorphic rock. Shale under pressure becomes slate.
44.         The primary purpose of the passage is to
a.    Differentiate between and characterize igneous and sedimentary rocks
b.    Explain the factors that may cause rocks to change in form
c.    Show how the scientific names of rocks reflect the rocks’ composition
d.    Define and describe several diverse kinds of rocks
e.    Explain why rocks are basic parts of the earth’s structure
45.         All of the following are sedimentary rocks EXCEPT
a.    Shale b. gravel         c. sand                       d. limestone  e. schist
46.         The passage would be most likely to appear in a
a.    Technical article for geologists
b.    Teaching manual accompanying an earth science text
c.    Pamphlet promoting conservation of natural resources
d.    Newspaper feature explaining how oil is found
e.    Nonfiction book explaining where to find the results of sedimentation
47.         The relationship between igneous and sedimentary rocks may best be compared to the relationship between
a.    Leaves and compost
b.    Water and land
c.    DNA and heredity
d.    Nucleus and cell wall
e.    Sand and clay
48.         The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
                                          i.    I only
                                        ii.    III only
                                       iii.    I and II only
                                       iv.    II and III only
                                        v.    I, II and III
a.            I only
b.            III only
c.            I and II only
d.            II and III only
e.            I, II, and III
49.         Which of the following methods is NOT used by the author?
a.    Inclusion of concrete examples
b.    Classification and discussion
c.    Comparison and contrast
d.    Observation and hypothesis
e.    Cause and effect
50.         The author’s tone in the passage can best be described as
a.    Meditative
b.    Objective
c.    Ironic
d.    Concerned
e.    Bombastic













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