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Infosys Verbal paper Passage solved

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Chapter 11
Passage 1
Most of us use the products of science- railways, aeroplanes, electricity wireless and thousands of others- without thinking how they came into existence. We take them for granted, as if we were entitled to them as a matter of right. We are very proud of the fact that we live in an advanced age and are ourselves very advanced. Now, there is no doubt that our age is a very different one from previous ages and I think it is perfectly correct to say that it is far more advanced. But that is a different thing from saying that we as individuals or groups are more advanced. It would be the height of absurdity to say that because an engine driver can run an engine and Plato or Socrates could not, the engine driver is more advanced than, or is superior to, Plato or Socrates. But it would be perfectly correct to say that the engine itself is a more advanced method of locomotion than Plato’s chariot was.
1.            Which one of the following statements is true?
a.            An engine driver is cleverer than Plato or Socrates
b.            Plato or Socrates are in no way inferior to “the engine driver”
c.            Plato and Socrates surpassed the engine driver in every respect
d.            The engine driver cannot be compared to Plato or Aristotle
2.            In this passage, the author mentions Plato and Socrates to emphasize that
a.            They were men of great scholarship
b.            People as individuals in the modern age are not more advanced than their predecessors
c.            The engine is a better mode of locomotion than Plato’s chariot
d.            Plato Aristotle had greater respect for learning
3.            According to the author, the present age is far more advanced than
a.            All the previous ages in some respects
b.            The age of Socrates and Aristotle in some respects
c.            Some of the previous ages in all respects
d.            All the previous ages in all respects
4.            Many of us make use of machines
a.            With very little knowledge of their mechanism
b.            Without any knowledge of their historical significance
c.            With full knowledge of their genesis
d.            Without knowing how they were invented
5.            People today are very proud because they live
a.            In a philosophically advance age
b.            In a materially advanced age
c.            In a scientifically advanced age
d.            In a spiritually advanced age
Economists, ethicists and business experts persuade us that honesty is the best policy, but their evidence is weak. We hoped to find data that would support their theories ad thus, perhaps, encourage higher standards of business behaviour. To our surprise, their pet theories failed to stand up. Treachery, we found, can pay. There is no compelling economic reason to tell the truth or keep one’s word. Punishment for the treacherous in the real world is neither swift nor sure.
Honesty is, in fact, primarily a moral choice. Business people do tell themselves that, in the long run, they will do well by doing good. But there is little factual or logical basis for this conviction. Without values, without a basic preference of right over wrong, trust based on such delusion would crumble in the face of temptation. Most of us choose virtue because we want to believe in ourselves and because others respect and believe us.
And due to this, we should be happy. We can be proud of a system in which people are honest because they want to be, not because they have to be. Materially, too, trust based on morality provides great advantages. It allows us to join in great and exciting enterprises that we could never undertake if we relied on economic incentives alone.
Economists tell us that trust is enforced in the market place through retaliation and reputation. If you violate a trust, your victim is apt to seek revenge and others are likely to stop doing business with you, at least under favourable terms. A man or woman with a reputation for fair dealing will prosper. Therefore, profit maximisers are honest. This sounds plausible enough until you look for concrete examples. Cases that apparently demonstrate the awful consequences of trust turn out to be few and weak, while evidence that treachery can pay seems compelling.
1.            What do economists and ethicists, according to the passage, want us to believe?
a.    Businessmen should always be honest
b.    Businessmen cannot always be honest
c.    Businessmen turn dishonest at times
d.    Businessmen are honest only at times
2.            What did the author find out about the theory that ‘honesty is the best policy’?
a.    It is correct on many occasions
b.    It is correct for all businesses
c.    It is a useless theory
d.    It is a theory which seems to be correct only occasionally
3.            Why are businessmen, according to the aughor, honest in their dealings?
a.    Businessmen are God-fearing
b.    Businessmen choose to be honest
c.    Businessmen are honest by nature
d.    All businessmen are caught if they are dishonest
4.            Which of the following, according to the author, is the reason for being honest in business?
a.    It gives no immediate benefits
b.    It gives long-term benefits
c.    It makes a person self-seeking
d.    It earns the disrespect of others
5.            Why does the author say that one can be proud of the present situation?
a.    People are self-respecting
b.    People are respect-seekers
c.    People are unselfish
d.    People are honest without compulsion
6.            What is the material advantage which the author sees in being honest?
a.    It permits one to undertake activities which may not be economically attractive
b.    It permits one to be honest for the sake of honesty alone
c.    It permits one to make a lot of profit in various areas
d.    It permits one to form various trusts to make profits
7.            Why do businessmen, according to economists, remain honest?
a.    Dishonest businessmen can make more money
b.    Dishonest businessmen make money in the long run
c.    Dishonest businessmen cannot stay in business for long
d.    Dishonest businessmen are flogged in the market place
8.            Which of the following phrases is most nearly the ‘same’ in meaning as the word ‘persuade’ as it has been used in the passage?
a.    Give an assurance
b.    Give an opinion
c.    Try to convince
d.    Cheat
9.            Which of the following is ‘false’ according to the passage?
a.    Economists believe that all businessmen are dishonest
b.    Generally people are honest so as to earn self-respect
c.    Virtuous behaviour earns the respect of others
d.    All dishonest men are not caught
10.         Which of the following best describes what the author is trying to point out through the last sentence of the passage, ‘Cases that…compelling’?
a.    The consequences of dishonesty
b.    Theories do not seem to be true
c.    Economists predict correctly
d.    The contradictions in the real world

Passage -3
The greatest enemy of mankind, as people have discovered, is not science, but war. Science merely reflects the prevailing social forces. It is found that, when there is peace, science is constructive; when there is war, science is perverted to destructive ends. The weapons which science gives us do not necessarily cause war; they make war increasingly terrible. Till now, it has brought us to the doorstep of doom. Our main problem, therefore, is not to curb science, but to stop war- to substitute law for force, and international government for anarchy in the relations of one nation with another. That is a job in which everybody must participate, including the scientists. But the bombing of Hiroshima suddenly woke us up to the fact that we have very little time. The hour is late and our work has scarcely begun. Now we are face to face with an urgent question-“Can education and tolerance, understanding and creative intelligence run fast enough to keep us abreast with our own mounting capacity to destroy?” That is the question which we shall have to answer one way or the other in this generation. Science must help us in arriving at the answer, but the main decision lies within ourselves.
1.            According to the writer, the real enemy of mankind is not science but war, because
a.    Science merely invents the weapons with which wr is fought
b.    Science during wars becomes destructive
c.    The weapons that science invents necessarily lead to war
d.    The weapons invented by science do not cause war, though these make it more destructive
2.            War can be stopped if
a.    Science is not allowed to lead us to utter destruction
b.    We replace force and lawlessness by law and international government
c.    Science is restricted to be utilized only during war time
d.    Weapons invented by science are not used to launch a war.
3.            According to the writer, the main problem we are faced with is to
a.    Stop science from reflecting social forces
b.    Stop scientific activities everywhere
c.    Abolish war
d.    Prevent scientists form participating in destructive activities
4.            Our mounting sagacity to destroy can be kept under control by
a.    Encouraging social forces
b.    Education and broad-mindedness
c.    Insight and constructive thinking
d.    Both B and C (as above) together
5.            The expression ‘bring to the doorstep of doom’ means
a.    Carry close to death and destruction
b.    Lead to the threshold of a new destiny
c.    Indulge in a ruinous activity
d.    Introduces to an unpredictable destiny
6.            Which one of the following statements is ‘not implied’ in the passage?
a.    People needlessly blame science for war
b.    Science is misused for destructive purposes
c.    Neither science nor the weapons it invents add to the horrors of war
d.    The role of science in ensuring world peace is subsidiary to that of man
7.            Which of the following is OPPOSITE’ in meaning to the word ‘anarchy’ in the middle of the passage?
a.    Law and order
b.    Political dominance
c.    Economic prosperity
d.    Communal harmony
8.            The phrase ‘our work has scarcely begun’ implies that our work
a.    Has not yet begun
b.    Has only just begun
c.    Has been half-way through
d.    Has begun, but not yet completed
9.            The expression ‘keep us abreast’ in the passage means
a.    Keep at a distance
b.    Keep side by side
c.    Hold out a challenge
d.    Prevent from escaping
10.         Which of the following would be the most suitable title for the passage:
a.    Science and social forces
b.    Science and the horrors of war
c.    Science and world peace
d.    Science and the new generation
Passage 4
We develop the vital bond of attachment between a mother and her child through smiling response. As a visual stimulus the smile has attained its unique configuration principally by the simple act of turning up the comers of the mouth. The mouth is opened to some extent and the lips pulled back, as in the expression of fear, but with the curling-up of the corner, the character of the expression is radically changed. This development has in turn led to the possibility of another and contrasting facial posture- that of the down-turned mouth. By adopting a mouth line that is the complete opposite of the smile it is possible to signal an anti-smile. Just as laughing evolved out of crying and smiling out of laughing, so also the unfriendly face has evolved by a pendulum swing from the friendly face.
But there is more to smiling than a line of the mouth. As adults, we may be able to convey our mood by a mere twist of the lips, but the infant throws much more into the battle. When smiling at full intensity, it also kicks and waves its arms about, stretches its hands out towards the stimulus and moves them about, produces babbling sounds, tilts back its head and protrudes its chin, leans its trunk forward or rolls it to one side and exaggerates its respiration. Its eyes become brighter and may close slightly; wrinkles appear underneath or along the eye and some-times also on the bridge of the nose; the fold of the skin between the sides of the nose and the side of the mouth becomes more accentuated, and the tongue may be slightly protruded. The body movements seem to indicate a struggle on the infant’s part to make contact with the mother. With its clumsy physique, the baby is probably showing us all that remains of the ancestral private clinging response.
1.            We recognize a smile by
a.    The turning up of the corners of the mouth
b.    Opening the mouth, stretching the lips making them longer and curling up the corners
c.    Stretching the lips and turning down the corners while at her same time opening the mouth a little
d.    Kicking and moving the arms and stretching the hands towards the opposite person
e.    By closing the eyes and making them brighter A adult can convey his smile by
2.            An adult can convey his smile by
a.    A mere twist of his lips
b.    Twisting his lips upwards
c.    Kicking his arms about, producing babbling noises and breathing hard
d.    Adopting a mouth line completely opposite the anti-smile shape
3.            Which statement is ‘TRUE’?
a.    A baby’s smile is more vigorous than that of an adult
b.    When compared to adults, a baby smiles more quietly
c.    It is not possible to speak when one is smiling, especially when the person is a baby
d.    Babies make babbling noises, tilt their heads back and protrude their chin before they can smile
4.            Smiling is an effort on the infant’s part to show
a.    That it is happy
b.    Its mother is happy
c.    That it is struggling to make contact with its mother
d.    It attempts to develop a vital bond of attachment which its ape-like ancestors tried to do by clinging to the mother
5.            Match the following with words fatally opposite in meaning
a.    Laughing                   a.         Smile
b.    Anti-smile                  b.         Crying
c.    Curling up                 c.         Frown
d.         Down-turned
A vexed problem facing us is the clamour to open more colleges and to reserve more seats for backward classes. But it will be a sheer folly to expand such facilities recklessly without giving any thought to the quality of education imparted. If admissions are made far more selective, it will automatically reduce the number of entrants. This should apply particularly to new colleges, many of which are little more than degree factories. Only then can the authorities hope to bring down the teacher-student ratio to manageable proportion. What is more, teachers should be given refresher courses every summer to brush up their knowledge. Besides, if college managements increase their library budget it will help both the staff ad the students a great deal.
At the same time, however, it will be unfair to deny college education to thousands of young men and women, unless employers stop insisting on degrees even for clerical bobs. For a start, why cannot the government disqualify graduates from securing certain jobs, say Class III and IV posts? Once the link between degrees and jobs is severed, at least in some important departments, it will make young people think twice before joining college.
1.    What can automatically help to reduce admissions?
a.    Tough entrance tests
b.    Discouragement to open new colleges
c.    Selective admissions
d.    Abolishing reservation
2.    How can the standards of education be raised?
a.    By admitting only the best students.
b.    By opening model institutions
c.    By discouraging dull students
d.    By reducing the number of new entrants
3.    How can teachers be helped to brush up their knowledge?
a.    By providing better library facilities
b.    By arranging refresher courses
c.    By providing them more leisure
d.    By persuasive measures
4.    The author is not in favour of restricting admissions
a.    Unless degrees are delinked from jobs
b.    Unless alternative opportunities are provided
c.    Unless other incentives are offered
d.    Unless the teacher-student ration is changed

5.    What does the phrase ‘vexed problem’ mean?
a.    An extraordinary problem
b.    A problem which is being discussed at length
c.    A difficult problem
d.    An irritating problem














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